Why Spray Nozzle Protection is Important During Your Manufacturing Process

WHAT IS SPRAY NOZZLE PROTECTION? Spray Nozzles are specifically engineered for four critical functions: flow control, cleaning, coverage, and atomizing. It is important to filter solids from water, or any industrial liquid, before they reach your spray nozzles.

Unwanted and oversized particles can block the inside of an orifice, which in turn restricts water flow, impairs spray uniformity, and allows debris to pass through which in turn ends up in your process or on your product.

The proper filtration will help keep the nozzle clear of debris enabling them to provide uniform and consistent spray patterns.

For spray nozzle protection, careful media selection is essential. The primary factor to be considered is orifice size and shape of the nozzle opening. Other factors include solids content, type of contaminant, particle size, and shape, amount of contaminant to be removed, liquid temperature, and required flow rates.

For liquids other than water, knowing the liquid’s viscosity, corrosiveness, abrasiveness, and adhesive qualities are essential in specifying the nozzle protection filter.

EXAMPLE — FLUE GAS SCRUBBER SPRAY NOZZLE PROTECTION
To prevent fly ash and sulfur dioxide from venting into the atmosphere, flue gas scrubbers uniformly spray a sorbent into the dirty, hot flue gas. These sorbents, however, often contain oversized particles that can plug spray nozzle orifices. When this happens, the spray becomes uneven, and fly ash and sulfur dioxide can escape from the scrubber.

The key to spray nozzle protection is to filter the liquid before sending it to the spray nozzle. This eliminates the excess and oversize particles, which ultimately plugs the nozzle orifices. Once plugged, the spray becomes uneven, and the output quality becomes compromised. All at an additional and unnecessary expense to the bottom line.

The pro-active approach to this problem is to protect the spray nozzles, which is to filter the solution before it reaches this stage of the process. While there are many different filtration options, the most cost effective is to use self-cleaning filters. This is why incinerator systems manufacturers regularly contact Eaton to analyze their filtration methods in hopes of protecting their expensive spray nozzles while lowering their process costs.

A SELF-CLEANING SOLUTION
Eaton typically determines that the solution to this problem is twofold. To begin, many manufacturing facilities are throwing out more cartridges than necessary with disposable media. That is because disposable media are typically changed on a time cycle (e.g., once a shift, once a day, or once a week), regardless of whether the media needs replacement. To effectively filter when needed — and not when convenient — it is important to use automation when at all possible.

With the use of automation, the filters can be cleaned at precisely the right time, rather than when it is convenient. That is because the cleaning is controlled by the pressure differential between inlet and outlet headers as contaminants build up on the filter screen. When the pressure reaches a predetermined level, the screens are cleaned automatically — only as needed, and when needed.

The second problem was their use of processing liquids (sorbent) with unwanted and prior supposedly ‘filtered’ particles in it, which resulted in fouling and clogging of the spray nozzles. The consequence of this dynamic was uneven spray and fly ash/sulfur dioxide escaping from the scrubber.

Once identified, the incinerator systems manufacturer eliminated this problem by using Eaton self-cleaning filters. This meant less waste in the process. It also limited the unwanted particles in the process stream, which eliminated the spray nozzle clogging. Therefore, the process line did not have to be stopped to clean the nozzles.

RESULTS
The incinerator systems manufacturers are extremely pleased with the reliable operation of the filters, the elimination of spray nozzle plugging and fouling, as well as the fact that there are no spent cartridges to dispose.

–by Ask Filter Man

 

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How does Backwash Efficiency Affect Your Catalyst Bed Protection Filtration System?

Filtration systems are generally regenerated through a backwash cleaning cycle. The primary factors effecting backwash efficiency are • Available pressure differential • Backwash flow • Filter media characteristics  

Available Pressure Differential:  During backwashing, the backwash differential pressure (between the backwash source and drain) should ideally be three to five times greater than the differential pressure across the dirty media.  In a feedstock filter, the maximum dirty differential pressure should not exceed 15 PSID, meaning the backwash liquid should be delivered at 45 – 75 PSID to maximize the cleaning efficiency.

Backwash Flow:
A sufficient flow rate of backwash liquid will also be required to regenerate the filtering media. The required flow rate will be primarily dependent upon the type of media selected. Sufficient backwash flow along with sufficient backwash pressure will lead to hydro-shock cleaning effect and completely regenerate the media to its clean differential pressure.

Filter Media Characteristics:
The final component of filter regeneration is the media characteristics. By their very design, slotted wedge wire and woven wire mesh allow particles to be captured on the surface of the media, providing optimum particle release and media regeneration.  Sintered metal is multi-layered and can offer higher per-cake efficiencies, but can be difficult to regenerate.  This leads to shorter run times and increased downtime.

In summary, feedstock filtration is an important aspect in efficiently refinery operation.  Protecting catalyst beds from particulate contamination prevents bed plugging and increases catalyst life. Several factors affect filtration system efficiency and should be carefully considered when selecting a feedstock filtration system.

For more articles, tips and information on industrial filtration products and solutions visit our blog at eatonfiltration.wordpress.com or simply follow @AskFilterman on Twitter

Soap Maker Bubbling Over on Eaton Filters

Eaton’s DCF-800 Mechanically Cleaned Filter has helped this soap maker achieve a final product that consistently meets purity goals and has allowed for a more productive and cost-efficient manufacturing process.
Problem: Impurities in the soap due to an outdated filtering process
Solution: Eaton’s DCF-800 Mechanically Cleaned Filter
Results: The final product consistently meets purity goals and the manufacturing process is more productive and cost-efficient
Background
While maybe not quite as frightening as the famous Alfred Hitchcock shower scene, just imagine the shock of stepping into a hot shower, unwrapping your favorite bar of soap, and discovering that it’s already dirty. It can happen. That’s because soap contains glycerin, which brings with it important moisturizing properties. During the manufacturing process, glycerin is heated and added to the soap formulation before it goes to final production. However, the heating needs to be precise with little margin for error. When it is not heated properly, the soap can turn brown and even form brown specks that are small but still very much noticeable, hardly the 99 and 44/100% pure that a good soap needs to be.

Challenge
For one of the world’s largest suppliers of bar, detergent and body soaps, meeting that lofty goal is imperative to success. Supplying virtually every type of soap made, the company on any given day will see some 25 different brands of soap rolling down its production line. Relying on an outdated heating and filtering process, the company often had to reroute soap back into the assembly line to remove the brown haze and specks caused by the improperly heated glycerin to ensure that quality objectives were always achieved.  The rerouting was necessary, but was inefficient, expensive and time-consuming.  Additional labor was also required. While the final product was eventually meeting purity goals, the soap giant very much wanted to clean up the process.

Solution
In doing so, they turned to Eaton Filtration and installed a DOFF 800 filtration system for a 90-day trial run. The DOFF 800, a forerunner of the newer DCF­800 filters, is often used for trials.
Both perform a self-cleaning action by mechanically scraping collected debris from the filter screen with a disc that moves up and down the screen, parallel to the liquid flow. Collected debris is then automatically purged from the collection chamber at the bottom of the filter.  This self-cleaning action is performed without halting production and provides the highest quality filtering under continuous demand. Because the screen is cleaned continuously, a consistently high flow rate is maintained.  Uninterrupted filtering by the DCF also helps ensure consistent temperatures— a feature essential to meeting quality objectives.

Result
Before the 90-day test was even completed, the soap company was already washing its hands of the brown mess and has since ordered two new Eaton DCF-800 filters.  “Removal of the glycerin impurities was very successful,” reports Bruce Law, regional sales manager for Eaton’s filtration business. “The test unit delivered everything that we said it would.”  As a result, Law believes the costly rerouting of soap will soon be virtually eliminated.  “It’s still too early to gather a measurable return on investment,” adds Law, “but based on the results of the trial, the number of bars of soap that the company produces, and the cost to rework an out of spec product, it strikes me that the payback is going to be pretty quick.”

DCF-800 – One actuator delivers simple, reliable operation with water-like liquids. Ideal where a low initial investment is a key Our unique circular cleaning disc design (MCF design shown) ensures intimate contact with the screen to thoroughly and uniformly clean the media

 

The Filtration of Process Water and Its Importance in the Petroleum Industry


Disposable Filter Media: When final product clarification is a key process objective, a general standard of particle removal is retention in the 0.2 – 200 µ range. Many disposable filter media meet this criterion. Disposable filter media, typically bags or cartridges come in a wide range of µ and fabrics. Woven and nonwoven polypropylene, cellulose, polyester, nylon, and other materials are all available.

Two types of efficiency ratings are typically used for disposable filtration media: nominal and absolute. Nominal ratings can vary from 50 – 90% removal efficiency, depending on the product and the manufacturer. Absolute ratings imply 100% removal of particles at a set rating; this actually means 98.7 – 99.99%, depending on the product and the vendor.

Bag fabrication has advanced over the past few years, improving the filtration capacity of bags and making them more efficient. Multilayer bags, some as much as an inch thick, are now on the market. The multiple layers increase the solids holding capacity of the bags and provide a larger surface area for filtration. These higher efficiency bags normally last longer, remove a higher percentage of contaminants (up to 99.9%) and can be rated as low as 1.5 µ.

Even with new designs in bag construction, cartridge filters trap particulate that a simple bag cannot, such as soft particles, which can be extruded through bags. The ‘depth’ design of cartridges (layer of rigid construction) means they have more surface area upon which to trap the dirt and enable significantly more dirt holding capacity when compares to a similar size bag. This makes cartridge the filter choice for absolute filtration.

While disposable media such as bags and cartridges usually have a relatively low initial cost, operating costs can be high if charge out is frequent. Media replacement and waste disposal costs can quickly outweigh any ‘savings’ from the lower acquisition cost. Conversely, for applications with low processing volumes or where media replacement is infrequent, bag or cartridge filtration may be the best choice.

Cleanable Filter Media: Several different types of cleanable filter media are available as alternatives to disposable media or as a prefilter in staged filtration systems. They include wire mesh, wedge wire, defined pore, perforated, and sintered metal filters. Cleanable media can often be used in the same applications as disposable bags or cartridges, sometimes with significant labor and cost savings. There are many applications where pressure or flow requirements make cleanable filter media a better choice. When comparing purchase price to operational expenditures, a typical payback can range from six months to one year.

Cleaning of this media type may be done manually, hydraulically or mechanically. Manual cleaning often requires the use of expensive cleaning compounds, and the filter media can be damaged during cleaning. Additionally, work force is obviously required for manual cleaning, and worker safety/exposure issues are raised. Hydraulic cleaning involves using either the process stream or another compatible source of liquid to backwash the filter media. This may be cost prohibitive if the liquid being filtered is very expensive, hazardous, and/or no compatible with an outside source of liquid to the backwashing. Disposal of large volumes of contaminated backwash liquid could also be prohibitive.

There are three main classes of cleanable filters: vibrating screens, backwashing filters, and mechanically cleaned filters. Of these three, only vibrating screens require manual cleaning, but they have limited use in the petroleum process, especially for water treatment.  Mechanically cleaned filters are ideal for highly viscous liquids. Again, this does not apply to most water treatment applications.

Backwashing filters work well in high volume applications, typically ranging from 100 gpm and upwards. A minimum pressure of 45 psi and a small volume of liquid are required for backwashing. For these reasons, backwashing filters are often found throughout the petroleum industry.

Ultimately, whatever the process water application, careful consideration and selection of filtration equipment can significantly improve overall system performance. Although most attention for filtration in the petroleum industry traditionally focuses on refining crude, water is a key process component and can help drive optimization. It will reduce maintenance costs, repair costs, and labor requirements. It will also extend the life of expensive and valuable equipment, improve a plant’s competitive position, and help to drive profits.

Eaton Filtration Success Story for United States Tissue Manufacturer

Tissue Manufacturer Replaced TWO Basket Strainers with ONE Self-Cleaning Filter

This Resulted in Greater Profits!

A United States Tissue Manufacturer was using two mesh basket strainerswithin their Paper Processing line. The strainers preceded their glue application nozzles, and their main responsibility was to filter out the large glue particles before they migrated into the spray nozzle path. If the particles were not removed, the spray nozzles integrity would be compromised which was very expensive to fix. The basket strainers limitations required constant operator attention (24/7) due to the need to manually clean the unit. This took precious time out of the employee’s day to exclusively monitor the basket strainers, and then clean them whenever necessary.  In addition, the chances of large glue particles migrating into the product stream were increased due to the inability of the screen to automatically detect the unwanted material, and then make internal adjustments to remove them. This many times required the raw material to be filtered several times to ensure the large particles would not migrate into the spray nozzles. The combination of all factors resulted in lower profits for the entire facility.

The Tissue manufacturer discovered that one Eaton brand self-cleaning filter could replace their costly, maintenance intensive basket strainers. They found that the filter eliminated the need for an employee to monitor and clean the basket screens, which increased the length of their run time. In addition, due to the implementation of the self-cleaning filter, the raw materials only needed to be filtered once, rather than multiple times. This permitted them to increase their profitability!

SITUATION

To begin, a Tissue Manufacturer had been having problems with their spray nozzles clogging due to large glue particles migrating through the production line. In addition, due to the clogging of the spray nozzles, lesser quality end product was sneaking through which mandated the need to filter the raw materials time and time again. At first they thought the answer was the use of two basket strainers positioned within the manufacturing line to reduce glue particle migration. However, once the strainers were placed they noticed shorter run times, lesser end product, as well as another escalating cost — employee overhead!

Unfortunately, the company had only succeeded in transitioning the issue of the glue particles clogging from the spray nozzles to the clogging of the basket strainers. Worse yet, the strainers had to be constantly monitored 24/7, as well as require a dedicated employee to manually clean each screen when it became clogged. They also had to filter the raw material several times to ensure a well-filtered (clean) stream. Therefore, they were out the cost of the employee, valuable raw materials, as well as the fact that overall production time was lengthened.

Run time: The run time of the production line was decreased due to the need to clean the screen each time the filter screen was clogged. This resulted in lengthening of overall production time, which flew in the face of their lean manufacturing process goals

Costs: The need to designate one employee to monitor — and subsequently clean — the screens increased the cost of production.  And, they had to re-filter materials several times to catch the unwanted glue particles. If this is not bad enough, if some larger particles slipped thru the system the spray nozzles would clog which triggered additional costs.

Profits: The Company had to continuously monitor the basket strainers; which was taking away much needed resources from other areas of production. It was necessary to clean the basket screens several times per day, and consequently employees had to establish whether the raw materials that were just filtered, required additional filtering. When all the issues were analyzed together they identified a significant decrease in their profitability. Subsequently, it was determined that they needed the advice of a filtration expert.

SOLUTION

Eaton’s Filtration business,  analyzed their situation, and determined that one DCF-800 self cleaning filter could replace their two basket strainers.

The Eaton brand DCF self-cleaning filter is a closed system that is not open to the atmosphere, relying on pump pressure (not gravity) to filter liquids. This filter would tackle their shortened run time, monitoring issues, and escalating employee/raw materials costs that resulted in lower profits. Their headaches could be handled with one self cleaning filtration unit!

The DCF self-cleaning filter is based on a simple concept: cylindrical stainless steel housing contains a filterscreen; unfiltered liquids enter the inlet; solids are deposited on the interior surface of the filtration media; and filtered fluid exits at the outlet. This enables the filter to be completely enclosed, and run automatically with minimal operator intervention.

The Paper Processing application details are as follows:
Model: DCF-800
Liquid: Water Based Glue
Retention: 230 micron
Pressure: 10 psi (0.69 bar)
Flow Rate: 5 gpm (18.9 l/min)
Viscosity: 1.4 cps
Contaminant: Paper Fiber

RESULTS

Due to this new self-cleaning filtration system, the need for basket strainers was eliminated, as well as the need for employees to monitor them. And, the secondary filtration of raw materials was unnecessary. This resulted in approximately 10/hours/week labor savings and enabled their run times to be longer.

Most importantly, because the Eaton brand DCF-800 was placed prior to the glue application nozzles it eradicated any large glue particles filtering thru to the next stage, which were the spray nozzles. The costs for extra spray nozzles, employee overhead, and re-filtration of raw materials were eliminated! 

Impressively, the customer ended up purchasing a second DCF-800 because of the success of the first.

 
If you would like to discuss this filtration solution with one of our highly trained Applications Specialists, please contact Eaton today.

If you would like to read more published real-world documented case studies about how our industrial filters have helped customers improve their bottom line, please visit the Eaton filtration website.

Liquid Bag Filtration from Eaton


There is a full range of Eaton Filter Bags…over 1500 choices in all. From economical sewn filter bags for standard applications to welded, multi-layered bags for demanding applications. There are even special Eaton Filter Bags and Elements that can replace expensive filter cartridges in many applications. The convenience and economy of liquid bag filtration is now feasible for filtration applications including bag filters for water that previously required other, more expensive systems. Or, you can take it beyond just a filter bags and combine both bag and cartridge filtration system with a product like the HAYFLOW from Eaton as show in the picture to the left.

 

 

Bag filtration applications include:

Eaton Filtration Saftey Splash Guard

 

The Splash Guard safety accessory, which provides additional protection from liquid splash conditions in industrial environments. Engineered to fit on its FLOWLINE™ and FLOWLINE II™ single bag filter vessels, this new safety accessory is made from impact resistant, UV protective polymer making it ideal for harsh industrial environments.

“The Splash Guard product reflects Eaton’s commitment to providing products that help protect associates in industrial settings against unforeseen accidental events,” said Rick Jacobs, president of Eaton’s Filtration business. “We hope you will join with us in taking extra precautions in protecting employees.”

Designed with operator safety in mind, the Splash Guard is secured to the filter housing vessel lid. This design helps protect operators from unexpected pressurized spray and discharge, reduces operator exposure to potentially hazardous material, and provides additional eye and face protection. Available from Eaton’s filtration distribution network, the Splash Guard will fit on new and existing Flowline vessels. It is easy to install and does not interfere with bag change outs.